The gallbladder concentrates and stores bile as a pear-shaped sac which it can release to help digestion after a fatty meal.
The full form of GLP-1 is glucagon like peptide 1. It is a naturally occurring peptide hormone produced by L cells of the small intestine. Secretion is nutrient dependent and usually follows carbohydrate, protein or lipid intake. It has a very short half life and is broken down by gut enzymes in about 2 minutes. It is a potent anti hyperglycemic hormone. It acts by inducing glucose dependent insulin secretion. It also depresses the release of glucagon hormone. It has been shown to restore the glucose sensitivity of pancreatic beta cells in type 2 diabetics. Studies have found that it results in remission of diabetes in patients who have had gastric bypass procedure. In the pancreas, it decreases self initiated death (apoptosis) of the beta cells and promotes formation of new cells. In the stomach, it decreases gastric acid secretion and slows the gastric emptying time. It decreases food intake by acting on the brain to induce satiety. It is one of the hormones involved in the ileal brake phenomena and has been shown to increase quality of bones in people.