The gallbladder concentrates and stores bile as a pear-shaped sac which it can release to help digestion after a fatty meal.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS): Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome also referred to as Stein-Leventhal syndrome is characterized by the formation of numerous small cysts in the ovaries of a female that leads to hormonal imbalance causing a constellation of signs and symptoms. PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in females and affects approximately 5-10% of females. PCOS presents as symptoms of disturbances of the menstrual cycle and increased levels of androgens (male hormones). Menstrual disturbances can range from delayed menstruation also known as primary amenorrhea to decreased frequency of menstrual periods also referred to as oligomenorrhea to complete absence of menses for greater than 3 months also referred to as secondary amenorrhea. The cycles are usually anovulatory (i.e., ovulation does not occur) and may cause heavy menstrual bleeding. The other symptoms of PCOS include excessive hair growth on the body also referred to as hirsutism, acne, male pattern baldness, weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance, elevated cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and infertility.